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Marketing of industrial products -- brand building of industrial products enterprises

Click times: 2053 release time: 15:00:08, November 25, 2019
There was a thought-provoking article reported in the domestic newspaper, consulting the CEOs of the top 500 multinational enterprises. What is the business goal of the enterprise? The answer is: brand market share. This shows that many enterprise presidents have already realized the importance of brand. Compared with domestic enterprises, especially the current international market productivity has been in excess, all countries with open market economy have entered the buyer's market in varying degrees, and the environment and means of market competition have changed greatly compared with the past. In this case, the main means for enterprises to win is no longer simply to compete with products themselves, but also to compete with brands. In the future, the main way for enterprises to compete in the international market is to compete with brands.
With the rapid development of China's industrial products industry in recent years, the technical level, service capacity and industrial scale have been greatly improved, and a road of industrial products development with Chinese characteristics has been set out. Like other industries, to a certain extent, building a successful brand naturally becomes the goal of industrial products enterprises.


2.1 the difference between the brand building of industrial products enterprises and other industries
What is a brand? Brand is the emotional needs established for the target customers (customers). Frankly speaking, it is the psychological feelings of customers (customers). On this point, industrial brand and consumer product brand are basically the same. However, there are great differences in the ways and methods of brand building. The differences are mainly due to the following aspects:
First, different purposes. Industrial products are mainly used as means of production. This kind of investment should pay attention to return, while the investment purpose of consumer goods is to enjoy, which is related to personal hobbies and material wealth.
Second, the degree of rationality is different. The purchase of industrial products is more rational, which belongs to the enterprise decision-making; while the purchase of consumer goods is more likely to produce irrational consumption, which belongs to individual consumption decision-making.
Third, the professional level and quantity group of industrial products are different. The buyers of industrial products are relatively professional and have a high degree of understanding of the products, but the number of buyers is limited; the buyers of consumer goods are relatively weak, but the number is huge.
In general, consumer goods can be properly guided for consumption. At this time, advertising can play a very good role, such as Nongfu mountain spring, Haifei silk shampoo and so on. A good advertising creativity can be well differentiated positioning, find the ideal consumer, and achieve the purpose of establishing a brand through high-quality products and services Products belong to the understanding of the purchase, the purpose of customer purchase is to make profits, production enterprises should understand the customer's business environment and profit psychology, understand the profit psychology is to be able to more accurately grasp customer demand, understand the business environment can be targeted at customers to develop more perfect solutions, at this time advertising is basically not playing a big role, want to establish enterprise products How to meet the needs of customers for profit is the key point.


2.2 misunderstanding of brand building
The relationship between brand and sales: there are always some disharmony between the marketing department and the Sales Department of most enterprises. Brand is the work of the marketing department, and sales is the work of the sales department. This is the division of functions of most enterprises. Brand and sales are often considered to be of little relevance. There is a classic saying in the marketing circle about the relationship between brand and sales: "sales is selling products, and brand is selling more products." If a brand can not even enter the top five in its target market, it is impossible to establish a brand. On the contrary, the establishment of a strong brand will also promote the sales of enterprises. Sales volume is the basis of brand survival. Only sales volume can activate the brand's position in the hearts of target customers. The number of sales means the relationship with customers, and brand communication will have an audience. During the exhibition of Shanghai International Industrial Expo in 2007, we had a dialogue with the boss of a new enterprise. The boss was very frank and said that at present, the main business of the enterprise is to establish a brand first and then make sales. Due to the short time, there is no further discussion. However, we feel that the brand building of industrial products industry must be based on sales. The brand of enterprises should be based on the basic wall structure of solid sales, stable customer base and good service. Without these factors, brands become castles in the air. To be a brand in sales, a brand will in turn improve sales. Both promote each other and complement each other. Of course, it does not mean that the brand must be formed when the sales are well done. To establish a good brand, we should consider the comprehensive brand factors such as popularity, reputation, loyalty and brand association.
Brand building is not the natural desire of enterprises, but the demand of enterprises in the market competition. Brand for enterprises, only as a weapon for enterprises to occupy the market, attack the city and pull out the stronghold, can the brand have real significance, and the establishment of brand is not frivolous and elegant.  
Some enterprises like ye gonghao long for brand, but in the actual marketing work, they don't pay attention to brand construction and brand value development, let alone brand marketing. As the means of production, there are many differences in the marketing of industrial products in other markets, and there are also some misunderstandings in brand building. We think that there are three main points:
1. Relationship first, brand useless. Many people think that the marketing of industrial products is relationship marketing. Whether it can be successful or not depends on whether the relationship is not in place. Those who hold this view forget the most fundamental foundation of relationship marketing -- the products and services provided can meet the needs of users, which is the advantage of brand buses. The marketing of bus products is a systematic, long-term and complicated process from customer tracking to signing a contract, from order production to acceptance and collection, from use training to after-sales service, which will involve all functional departments of the enterprise. Any mistake in one link may lead to customer dissatisfaction or even loss of customers. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on customer demand and improve the brand Appeal to ensure the quality of products and services.  
2. Profit oriented, brand failure. As we all know, there will be grey areas in the marketing of industrial products, and sometimes it will play a key role. With the deepening of the national legal system construction, the market will become more and more standardized, and the living space in the gray area will continue to shrink. Improving the brand competitiveness and improving the service level will become an important basis in bus marketing.  
3. Low price competition, brand trap. With the increasingly fierce competition of bus products, price war has become the first marketing means of many enterprises. We can not deny the attraction of low price to customers, but this is not all. In the purchase of industrial products, users will weigh from three aspects: purchase risk, use benefit and purchase cost. The most important consideration is purchase risk, and value is the decisive factor. Users are worried about whether the products are reliable, whether the service is considerate, and whether the use cost of industrial products is economical. Low price competition only solves the problem of purchase cost. Only under the premise of ensuring products and services, low price competition will be effective.  
2.3 how to build a brand
There are too many views on the establishment of brand in the marketing field. According to the characteristics of the industrial products industry, we put forward three elements of brand: brand positioning innovation, brand combination and service, brand communication.
1) Brand positioning Innovation:
Famous marketing master Philip Kotler once said: market positioning is the soul of the whole marketing. Market positioning is a creative thinking activity aiming at the existing products. It is to take action on the psychological needs of potential customers, refine the most attractive competitive elements for target customers, and convey them to customers by certain means, and finally transform them into customers' psychological understanding. Therefore, positioning is the first key link of brand marketing. Innovation in brand building mainly refers to two aspects: one is brand re positioning; the other is brand extension. The market of China's industrial products industry has been greatly refined in the increasingly fierce competition, and every enterprise can not monopolize each market segment. Therefore, in order to become a strong brand in the industry, we must first become a strong brand in the market segment. For example, in recent years, the market performance of Suzhou Jinlong is very outstanding. In addition to the advantages of "Jinlong", Suzhou Jinlong has carried out targeted innovation on its brand: strengthening the inherent medium-sized bus market; creating the "Hagrid" product brand; proposing the brand appeal of "safety and attentive service" to create a service brand. These innovative strategies are not only inherited from the "Golden Dragon" brand, but also distinguished from other Golden Dragon brands.
2) Brand core value construction and service:
The core value of a brand, just like the life and soul of a product, is the place of a brand's personality. Milton Kotler, President of Kotler Marketing Group, one of the world's top marketing consultants, commented that: for Haier, brand is a large-scale promotion campaign; for Motorola, brand is a strategic movement to establish cognitive value and brand preference in the minds of target customers. Haier uses tactics, while Motorola uses strategy. When it comes to large-scale marketing, the fact that most of Milton's marketing is attributed to the fact that most enterprises are lack of scientific brand planning. American advertising expert Riley Wright clearly pointed out: the future of marketing is the brand war - the competition of brand length. Having a market will be more important than owning a factory. The only way to have a market is to have a dominant brand.
In today's highly homogenized development, the core value of a brand will become the key to brand differentiation, just as the uniqueness is the individual identification of human vitality, and the difference is the competitiveness.
Based on the above analysis, it can be concluded that the construction of brand core value includes two aspects
One is the purchase value of the brand. If the brand quality is guaranteed, the after-sales service is good and trustworthy, it means that the brand has completed the accumulation of purchase value. When customers reduce the decision-making risk by confirming the brand in the purchase environment with asymmetric information, we say that it has the purchase value, which is the foundation of brand management;
The other is the emotional value of the brand. This kind of value meets the spiritual needs of buyers. In the brand construction of industrial products industry, there is still a lack of emotional appeal. The rational decision-making of customers also brings certain difficulties to the direction of emotional appeal, but it is not without solutions. The emotional factors of many enterprises to the brand are based on rational trust. When the products and services satisfy the customers, the emotional appeal will have a market. Some customers' nostalgia for enterprises is based on their dependence on products.
When a brand has the purchase value and emotional value, it can shape the brand loyalty to the greatest extent, which is the way to win the brand management.
Product brand is the content that enterprises attach great importance to. We have made a rough statistics. At present, 90% of the marketing activities of each enterprise are to promote products and product brands, while the service is more carried out by the after-sales service department. Don't forget that service is also a solid wall supporting the brand roof, and service can not be a short plank in brand construction.
3) Brand communication:
Communication is the main way to shape brand power. It is very important for an enterprise to participate in market competition, establish brand loyalty and establish enterprise image.
The so-called "brand communication" means that the enterprise takes the core value of the brand as the principle, selects the communication methods of advertisement, public relations, sales and interpersonal communication to promote the specific brand, so as to establish the brand image and promote the market sales. Brand communication is an effective means for enterprises to meet customer needs and cultivate customer loyalty. It is also a banner held high by entrepreneurs at present.
Through the effective communication of the brand, the brand can be recognized by the majority of customers and the public, and the brand can develop rapidly. At the same time, the effective communication of the brand can also realize the effective docking between the brand and the target market, and lay a foundation for the brand and products to enter the market and expand the market. Brand communication is not only a means to appeal for brand personality, but also an important part of brand culture.
Schultz, who is known as the pioneer of integrated marketing communication, said: in the homogeneous market competition, only communication can create the brand competitive advantage of travel alienation. Unique product design, excellent appeal creativity, reasonable forms of expression, appropriate media, the best investment opportunity, perfect promotion combination and so on are the favorable tools for the formation of efficient communication.
Yutong is the best in bus industry. In 2005, Yutong launched a series of activities of "durability is gold", which can also be regarded as the most successful communication example of the bus industry at present. Firstly, its product demand is in line with the core demand of the passenger transport market at that time; secondly, it has played a good demonstration role by launching a series of activities in different regions of the country, inviting leading enterprises from all over the country to participate; thirdly, Yutong almost developed All media focusing on buses have been mobilized to spread the activity and theme appeal of "durability is gold" in a wide range and for a long time, and the arrival rate of information is almost 100%; fourthly, the activity of "durability is gold" starts from April at the beginning of the year and ends in December at the end of the year, which almost spans the whole sales year and affects the market trend of the whole year; fifthly, Yutong's "durability is gold" campaign starts from the selection From durable stars to award-winning essays, from oil-saving competition to expert guidance, the situation that people at different levels are talking about is formed, which is very conducive to the recognition of brand appeal in the hearts of customers and the public. Communication is a very important part of brand building. Brand building in the final analysis is to let everyone understand and accept the brand proposition. Without efficient communication, no matter how good the brand idea can only be creative, and can not let others understand. For example, Yutong's series of activities on the theme of "durability" in 2005 were not first put forward, but they were the most successful in integrated communication, so that people in the whole industry know Yutong's interpretation of durability.


2.4 overview of brand four
Industrial product brand marketing according to the customer's understanding of the brand, near to the use of the brand, the concept of the brand will have some gradual improvement. Generally divided into four steps: satisfaction, recognition, reputation, loyalty.
1. Satisfaction
Brand satisfaction is due to the customer's evaluation of the enterprise brand after purchasing relevant products and services. Through the oral propaganda effect of customer satisfaction, those satisfied customers will send strong messages to others. In some enterprises, customer recommendation has become the main channel of sales, accounting for more than 50% of the total sales.
"Customers are the scarcest resource and the whole reason for the existence of a brand." "Customer relationship is a brand, and having a good and lasting customer relationship means that you have a group of loyal customers to the brand." Many enterprises' understanding of brand satisfaction. Satisfied customers will provide a large number of credible oral advertising for enterprises, and a satisfied customer can influence at least seven future customers; at the same time, satisfied customers are the key to enhance loyalty. The longer their satisfaction time is, the higher the company's profit will be, and the development can be carried out steadily and continuously.
2. Recognition
Recognition is the lowest level of knowledge. At this stage, customers only know our products and services, and they simply understand the contents of some products and services. Customers at this level don't feel much about our products and services. They are just homogeneous products. Therefore, it is not guaranteed that they will use our products or introduce them to their friends next time. Because they don't really feel that "so and so products are general, there is nothing special.".  
3. Reputation
When customers can praise our products and services, they will feel more about our products and services. Customers will be happy to use our products and services. We may also be considered in the next purchase. They will also spread among friends around them, "so and so products are good, still worth trusting.".
4. Loyalty
When customers have a certain reputation for our products and services, they may be twice or three times Use it. At this time, there will be a strong sense of customer service. At this time, the customers are the most stable and worthy of our care and help. In many ways, these customers are our parents. "So and so's product is excellent, very trustworthy.".


2.5 the necessity of improving brand loyalty
Most of China's industrial enterprises are old state-owned enterprises with backward system and state protection. From the 1950s to today, there are only 60 years in total. Due to the long-term opacity, there is a heavy "gray marketing" factor in the marketing of industrial products. Many small and medium-sized enterprises can still complete the task of selling products without the support of brands, which leads to many problems Enterprises misunderstand that "brand is the game of the rich". We small and medium-sized enterprises can't afford to play. Relying on "the next three ways", we can still smooth the obstacles on the way forward.
At the same time, the difference between the marketing mode of industrial products and general fast moving consumer goods has led industrial products enterprises to think that it is not suitable to advertise consumer goods like "popular lovers". Because the target customers of industrial products are relatively narrow, it is more applicable to take the company group as the main body, need model projects, visit and inspection, etc., so they think that "the emperor's daughter is not worried about marriage" As long as we pay attention to the quality of products.
However, in the process of industrial products development, we found that there are many problems in the marketing of enterprises, forcing us to think about the problem of brand loyalty.
1) The market competition is more and more fierce, and the price is getting lower and lower
In the industrial product market, it is difficult to imagine what Chinese enterprises can rely on to gain advantages in market competition if there is no means of price competition, because the quality and performance of products are very different from those of foreign companies, and it is also unpredictable that if Chinese enterprises use skilled "price war" in the process of "seizing cities and plundering land", once they fail, some Chinese enterprises will be able to gain advantages in market competition Whether the enterprise will become vulnerable when resisting the competition risk.
In the international market, Chinese enterprises have not been able to get rid of the image of "cheap products" formed for a long time. Most of the industrial products can not go out of the country. Only in China's market price competition, waiting for foreign industry giants to enter; and on January 1, 2007, China will fully open the market. It is generally believed that the business environment of Chinese enterprises will change from the internationalization of domestic market to the localization of international market. This means that if we simply rely on the "price war", Chinese enterprises will not only be difficult to achieve success, but also face great survival pressure.
In order to get rid of the situation that they can only rely on "price" to compete for the market, Chinese enterprises must produce products with higher technical content. A research report from Harvard University points out that 90% of successful international enterprises have their own core technologies. Taking the field of electronic information technology, which is the most intense "price war" among Chinese enterprises as an example, authoritative data from the State Intellectual Property Office show that the top six countries in the number of patent applications in China from 1996 to 2003 are Japan, the United States, South Korea, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom; in the ranking of enterprise patent applications, there are no enterprises in mainland China in the top 10 It can be seen that the "high-end" and "low-end" products can only hurt the "low-end" ability of Chinese enterprises.
With the progress of the times and the improvement of China's market economy, the active participation of Chinese industrial products enterprises in domestic and international competition has become a "arrow from the bow". In this general trend, the "price war" mode will inevitably stop from subjective and objective requirements. However, if we learn from the bitter experience and walk out of the "short-lived strategy" of blindly relying on price to fight for the market, Chinese industrial products enterprises can really occupy a place in the domestic and foreign markets.
At the same time, international marketing master Milton Kotler, when talking about China's industrial products manufacturing industry, pointed out that "when high-quality products enter developed markets, they have little control over quality and price, and Chinese enterprises need to obtain 30% profits from brands instead of 10% - 15% market processing fees". There is no doubt that the brand is still more competitive in price.
2) Lack of brand loyalty, unable to become a century enterprise
For a large number of industrial products enterprises, marketing focuses on how to "win" customers, rather than how to "own" customers for a long time. The purpose of relationship marketing is to make service, quality and marketing closely linked, so as to win customers and retain customers. However, relationship marketing orientation integrates service, quality and marketing, while customer service and all-round quality decision-making are based on brand marketing strategy.
I remember that before the "Teflon non stick pot incident" in DuPont of the United States in July 2004, many non stick pot manufacturers in China purchased Teflon coatings. After the news that Teflon might cause cancer appeared in the newspaper, it was not only the cookers who used Teflon coatings, but also DuPont company that suffered. I'm afraid the company will lose its vitality through the production of its own products. The customer group of non stick pot products is the common people. It is the key to win their trust, rather than to win the trust of non stick pot manufacturers first.
Jack Trott, a world-famous market strategist, pointed out: "there are two types of competitors who are successful when analyzing the significance of future market brands. One is strong brand loyalty. This kind of company can seek benefits all over the world; the other is specialized or well positioned brand. These are small competitors. " It should be said that Mr. Trotter pointed out the inevitable way out for the internationalization of Chinese industrial products enterprises.
3) The fact that the brand value chain of domestic enterprises shapes the company
Many industrial products enterprises have begun to focus on brand value chain communication and construction, and proposed that enterprises should operate based on the two main themes of "product" and "brand". For example, Yuchai power, Shifeng engine, Bosch and many other enterprise brand advertisements frequently appear on CCTV, becoming the era pioneer of industrial product brand marketing. This gives us a strong signal, that is, industrial products enterprises are gradually entering a new era of brand.
2.6 how to improve customer brand loyalty
The US business research report points out that customers who visit many times can bring 20-85% more profits to enterprises than those who visit for the first time. When the number of fixed customers increases by 5%, the profits of enterprises will increase by 25%. Although there is no relevant data of industrial products industry, we have good reasons to believe that loyal customers are equally important to industrial products enterprises.
How to improve customer's brand loyalty is one of the headache problems for industrial product enterprises. For the competitors, it is even the biggest loss for the enterprise to turn to the development support. The success or failure of marketing lies not only in the extent of new market development, but also in the utilization and continuous strengthening of the original customer resources. In the highly competitive industrial market, customer brand loyalty is becoming a concern of many market researchers.
1) Rational purchase decision and brand loyalty
The purchase of industrial products is a transaction involving hundreds of thousands or millions of yuan. Every enterprise or individual will make a purchase decision very carefully and will not be as casual as buying a bottle of water. What is the difference between buying water and buying industrial products? In the 1960s, some consumer psychologists put forward the theory of "customer involvement", which refers to the relationship between customers' subjective perception of objective goods and their related factors and customer self. Subjectively, the deeper the perception of commodity factors is, the higher the degree of consumer involvement in the commodity is, and the commodity is "high involvement commodity", otherwise it is "low involvement commodity". For example, the difference between a customer's decision to buy a bus and a bottle of water is that customers pay different attention to different commodities. The former requires customers to have a detailed understanding of product performance, quality, price, service, market reputation and other aspects. The process of making purchase decision is relatively complex and belongs to high involvement goods; while when customers purchase a bottle of water, it is unnecessary to spend too much time and energy to make decisions, which belongs to low involvement goods. The different attributes of goods directly affect the degree of customers' attention to the goods, and further affect whether the decision of purchasing goods tends to be more rational. Industrial products, which are high transaction prices, belong to high involvement commodities. Therefore, in general, customers' purchase decisions are basically relatively rational. With the development of China's industrial products market, this trend will be more obvious. It can be said that the industrial products market has entered the era of rational purchase.
Rational buyers are generally less affected by external factors, and can rationally look at various influencing factors, make a comprehensive analysis of them, and confirm the information they need. In this case, the marketing of industrial products will be more difficult. It is mainly manifested in: on the one hand, buyers usually conduct a comprehensive survey of enterprises, and have corresponding standards for products, prices, quality, services, brands, etc., and enterprises must move from product sales to comprehensive marketing; on the other hand, many of the ways enterprises try to attract customers fail in front of rational buyers. For example, some enterprises hope to increase sales through a lot of advertising and promotion, but rational buyers are often not attracted by them. How to improve the customer's loyalty in most of the customers' business is becoming a problem.
Due to the aggravation of market competition, customers are facing more and more choices. At the same time, customers' demands are also showing diversity. It is more and more difficult to maintain customers' loyalty to a certain brand. However, for enterprises, loyal customers are the most valuable wealth of enterprises, mainly in two aspects: on the one hand, brand loyal customers can timely convey effective information, which is conducive to improve the level of products and services of enterprises, and can timely grasp the market dynamics and improve the survival ability of enterprises; on the other hand, brand loyalty is conducive to reducing marketing costs The cost of maintaining the relationship with old customers is much lower than the development cost of new customers.
2) evaluation index of brand loyalty
Brand loyalty is a parameter that is not easy to quantify. We can use several indicators used in consumer goods market research to evaluate brand loyalty
(1) repeat purchase times of customers. This is the most direct indicator to evaluate brand loyalty. The higher the customer loyalty to a certain brand, the higher the customer's loyalty in a certain period of time. Due to the factors such as operating income of different industrial products affect customers' choice of industrial products, this situation is not suitable for the evaluation of brand loyalty. Therefore, we should treat them differently according to the applicability of different industrial products.
(2) time for customers to make purchase decisions. We may all have this experience: because of the trust in a certain brand, we will easily make the purchase decision, from small to buy Bearings, to buy bulldozers and so on. This kind of difference caused by different degree of trust is also one of the indicators to identify customer loyalty to the brand. Generally speaking, the shorter a customer takes to make a purchase decision, the higher his loyalty to the brand.
(3) price sensitivity of customers. Buyers attach great importance to the price of goods, but this does not mean that they are equally sensitive to the price of each product. The fact shows that for the brand that they like and trust, the buyer is relatively strong in the ability to bear the price change, while for the product that is not trusted, the buyer's tolerance to the price change is weak, that is, the sensitivity is high. This is also a measure of brand loyalty. But for industrial products, because the buyer's purchase decision is relatively rational, the so-called brand loyalty is based on the rational goal of achieving its profit purpose, so customers are not only sensitive to price, but also sensitive to service and product applicability.
(4) customer acceptance of competitive products. The change of customer loyalty to a certain brand is not only related to the behavior of the brand itself, but also caused by the attraction of competitive products. Therefore, customers' attitude towards competitive products can judge their loyalty to a certain brand. If customers are easy to have a good impression on competitive products, it means that customers have low loyalty to a certain brand, and they are likely to turn to competitive products when making purchase decisions. For industrial products enterprises, this is also the most difficult factor to create customer loyalty.
The above four main indicators for evaluating brand loyalty refer to the evaluation criteria for customer loyalty of common consumer goods, which should also be applicable to the industrial product market. However, we must note that the relatively rational purchasing behavior of industrial products will increase the instability of customer brand loyalty to a certain extent.
3) channels to improve brand loyalty
From the above evaluation criteria, it can be seen that the level of customer loyalty to the brand is determined by many factors. Therefore, to improve the brand loyalty, we must start from all aspects to achieve corresponding results.
(1) continuously improve product quality and optimize product design. Product is the core element in the marketing of industrial products, and also the basis for customers to generate brand loyalty. Without good product quality, there is no brand loyalty to talk about. Many success or failure examples tell us: customer loyalty to the brand, in a fundamental sense, is loyalty to the quality of its products. Only the high quality products that can stand the customer's inspection can have the qualification to produce brand loyalty.
(2) improve the after-sales service system. After sales service is the most direct way for manufacturers to get close to customers and obtain customers' trust and recognition. According to the characteristics of the use of industrial products, the service capacity of manufacturing enterprises largely determines the trade of industrial products. If the production enterprise can solve the customer's product failure quickly and successfully, it will improve the customer's satisfaction and may become a "repeat customer". The after-sales service of industrial products industry is a systematic project. The so-called perfect service system must guarantee customer satisfaction in every link.
(3) establish enterprise consulting service system. As mentioned above, the purchase of industrial products is more rational. When customers make purchase decisions, they must comprehensively examine the products and enterprises. Whether the enterprise has a perfect consulting service system, to a certain extent, determines whether the enterprise can help customers to make purchase decisions.
(4) formulate reasonable price system according to cost and market demand. As the cost depreciation of industrial products has become an important expenditure in its daily operation, it is also an important factor affecting customers' purchase decisions. Therefore, making a reasonable product price is also an important means to improve brand loyalty. Customers will have an expected psychological price when they make a purchase decision. If the actual price exceeds the expected price, it will affect their purchase decision-making; otherwise, it will be easier to accept. When making the price of industrial products, manufacturers must first find out the expected price of such products from customers, so that the price can be easily accepted by customers.
(5) to build a good corporate image. Customer loyalty to the brand is not only out of the need for the use value of products, but also has a certain emotional color. Under the trend of homogenization of products and services in the bus market, the impact of enterprises on customers is particularly important. People live in a variety of social relations, and there are also various relationships between customers and production enterprises. There are many kinds of relationships between the personnel of different positions and different types of work of both sides. These people determine the purchase decision of enterprises to different degrees.
Improving brand loyalty is the process of enterprise's comprehensive improvement. The methods of improving brand loyalty are discussed from the aspects of product, service, price and brand. In fact, from the perspective of brand loyalty and brand recognition, the most important thing to do is to improve customer satisfaction, especially in terms of brand awareness and brand awareness. The object of loyalty refers to repeat customers. The customer's feeling in the first purchase and use determines the next purchase decision. Therefore, improving customer satisfaction is the prerequisite for improving loyalty. Customer satisfaction is the key to improve customer satisfaction. This is mainly from two aspects. On the one hand, enterprises strive to provide customers with high-quality products and services, although the specific practices of each enterprise are different, with advantages and disadvantages; on the other hand, enterprises should also pay attention to improving the popularity and recognition of enterprises and products, and at the same time, do not give customers some promises that enterprises can not achieve. These commitments are invisible It improves the psychological expectation of customers. When the enterprise fails to fulfill its promise, it will be counterproductive. Two different brands of buses have the same fault, because of the different expectations of customers, their feelings are also different.
To improve the brand loyalty of customers, we should also pay attention not to enter such a misunderstanding: customer satisfaction will lead to loyalty. Now the marketing of industrial products is moving towards homogenization. The differences between enterprises in products and services are not very obvious. Customers' satisfaction with your products and services does not mean that they are not satisfied with competitors' products and services. Customer satisfaction is only a sufficient condition for customer loyalty.  

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